Archaeology was the scientific discipline of excavating, studying and learning from the past.
When the Second Doctor was on Telos he was referred to as an archaeologist. (TV: The Tomb of the Cybermen) The Fifth Doctor's companion Peri Brown had at least a passing interest in archaeology. (TV: Planet of Fire)
Another companion, Bernice Summerfield, was by trade an archaeologist before she met the Seventh Doctor, and had a supposed degree qualifying her as a professor in it, though not an official one. (PROSE: Love and War) Bernice specialised in archaeological studies after they parted. [source needed]
River Song held a doctorate on the subject from the Luna University. (TV: Closing Time) She eventually became a professor after knowledge of the Doctor, the person she supposedly murdered, was removed from most of the databases throughout time and space. (TV: The Angels Take Manhattan) The Tenth Doctor said, "I'm a time traveller. I point and laugh at archaeologists!" (TV: Silence in the Library) The Eleventh Doctor implied that people intent on finding him pursued the discipline of archaeology. (TV: Let's Kill Hitler)
Archaeological digs, explorations and expeditions
The Galis Expedition and later the Walker Expedition investigated the remnants of the Disciples of the Light civilisation on the planet Krop Tor. (WC: Tardisode 8, TV: The Impossible Planet/The Satan Pit)
As a professor, River later led an archaeological team, which included an engineer (Other Dave) and archaeologists (Anita and Proper Dave), to the Library. (TV: Silence in the Library/Forest of the Dead)
An archaeological dig on France accidentally revived the Daleks on their ship when it was buried underground in 1917 after the First World War. The Eleventh Doctor arrived just in time and connected the ship up to a power line, overloading the reviving Daleks and their ship. (COMIC: The Dalek Project)