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The United Kingdom operated under a constitutional monarchy.

The Doctor and the monarchy Edit

The Doctor had numerous encounters with the Kings and Queens of Britain. So much so that Elizabeth X grew up on stories of the Doctor in the 29th century. (TV: The Beast Below)

The Doctor's relationships with the monarchs varied. The Tenth Doctor, after marrying Elizabeth I (TV: The End of Time, The Day of the Doctor), infuriated her to the point that the next time she saw him, she ordered his execution. (TV: The Shakespeare Code) While Queen Victoria both knighted and exiled him on the same day. (TV: Tooth and Claw) However, he also had good relationships with monarchs, such as Elizabeth II. (TV: Voyage of the Damned, Planet of the Dead)

History Edit

Early history Edit

Athelstan of England was the King of England for some time in the 10th century. He received the Cup of Athelstan in 924 as a coronation gift from Hywel, King of the Welsh. (TV: Planet of the Dead)

Harold Godwinson was King of England for most of 1066, having succeeded King Edward, who was put to rest early that year. After King Harold defeated a Viking invasion, the Normans invaded England from the south. The Monk planned to change history by using advanced technology to aid King Harold, ensuring that his army would be better able to face the Normans. This plan was defeated by the First Doctor and Harold was defeated in the Battle of Hastings by William the Conqueror. (TV: The Time Meddler)

Richard I of England, called Richard the Lionheart, was King of England during the Crusades. While he led his troops in the crusades, he worried that his younger brother John of England would usurp his throne back in England. Richard assisted the First Doctor and Ian Chesterton in rescuing Barbara Wright after her capture by Arabs. (TV: The Crusade)

King John of England ruled England in the early 13th century. While the real King John was in London taking the Crusader's Oath, the android Kamelion was being used in a plot by the Master to sabotage Earth history by preventing King John's signing of the Magna Carta, an event pivotal to the development of parliamentary democracy on that planet. This plot was foiled by the intervention of the Fifth Doctor. (TV: The King's Demons)

Richard III of England ruled England for two years before being succeeded by Henry Tudor after his apparent death. (AUDIO: The Kingmaker, PROSE: Sometime Never...)

16th century Edit

Henry Tudor (Henry VII) was the King of England until his death in 1509. (PROSE: Sometime Never...)

In his first incarnation, the Doctor claimed to have argued with Henry VIII so that he would be sentenced to the Tower of London where the TARDIS was located. (TV: "Strangers in Space")

After the death of Henry's successor, Edward VI, [source needed] Jane Grey became queen at sixteen years as her father wished, although she never wanted to rule. On 19 July 1553, she met Rani Chandra, a traveller from 2010, on the ninth and final day of her reign. (TV: Lost in Time)

Mary I had claimed the throne and proclaimed her a traitor, intending to sentence her to death. (TV: Lost in Time)

Elizabeth I was the Queen of England from at least 1562 (TV: The Day of the Doctor) to at least 1599 (TV: The Shakespeare Code) and a spouse of the Tenth Doctor. (TV: The End of Time, The Day of the Doctor) After the Doctor never returned to her, she met a younger version of his tenth incarnation following the premiere of Love's Labour's Won, and was furious with him. (TV: The Shakespeare Code)

17th century Edit

After the death of Elizabeth I some time before 1604, the Scottish King James I inherited the English throne. From then onwards, both kingdoms were ruled by a single monarch. (GAME: The Gunpowder Plot)

According to Barbara Wright, James' rule was characterised by relative religious tolerance. Though a staunch Protestant, he discouraged persecution of Catholics. Barbara claimed that he realised that "to govern well it made sense to unify people rather than drive them apart." (PROSE: The Plotters)

In spite of this, on 5 November 1605, Guy Fawkes and others attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill James I as part of a Catholic conspiracy which became known as the Gunpowder Plot. Their efforts were unsuccessful. Both the First and Eleventh Doctors were involved in these events. (PROSE: The Plotters, GAME: The Gunpowder Plot)

He was succeeded by his son Charles I, who reigned during the English Civil War. The war was fought between his supporters, the Cavaliers, and the Roundheads. The Roundheads emerged victorious and he was executed on the orders of Oliver Cromwell on 30 January 1649.

However, in 1660, his son Charles II became king after Parliament invited him to take the throne. (PROSE: The Roundheads)

Charles II, himself a Protestant, blamed the English Catholics for the Great Fire of London on 2 September 1666. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution) In actuality, it was started when a Terileptil weapon overloaded in a building on Pudding Lane. The Fifth Doctor played a major role in causing the fire. (TV: The Visitation)

The Fourth Doctor told Sarah Jane Smith that he met Charles II before he became king. At the time, he was on the run from the Roundheads and the Doctor helped him to hide in an old oak tree. (PROSE: The Republican's Story)

Upon his death in 1685, he was succeeded by his Catholic younger brother James II. In November 1688, his reign was brought to an end by the Glorious Revolution when he was overthrown by William of Orange. Its less immediate consequences included the Jacobite Risings which culminated in the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution)

18th century Edit

William of Orange died on 8 March 1702 — at least according to a newspaper that the Fifth Doctor and Turlough read. His death caused ordinary English subjects to toast the health of the heir-apparent, Princess Anne. He was the William referred to in the phrase "William and Mary". (AUDIO: Phantasmagoria)

King George I of England was from Hanover, Germany. The Second Doctor took up his German guise and said he spoke better English than the King. (TV: The Highlanders)

George II was King of England in 1746. The Redcoats fought for him. (TV: The Highlanders) During the Jacobite Rising of 1745, the Glaswegians fought on side of King George II and the English. (PROSE: The Wheel of Ice)

George III was the King of the United Kingdom from 1760 to 1820. In 1774, he received the last mammoth in Europe as a gift from Catherine II of Russia. (PROSE: The Adventuress of Henrietta Street, COMIC: Political Animals)

19th century Edit

Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, Defender of the Faith, usually known as Queen Victoria, was a powerful and influential monarch on Earth in the 19th century. Victoria met the Doctor at least twice: once during her coronation in 1838, [source needed] and in 1879 she shared an adventure with the Tenth Doctor. The latter encounter led her to banish the Doctor from her country and form the Torchwood Institute, as the British Empire's defence against the dark forces with which the Doctor seemed to consort. (TV: Tooth and Claw)

20th century Edit

The Doctor claimed to have met Edward VII in Paris. (TV: Inferno)

Edward VIII' was King of the United Kingdom for most of 1936. He chose to abdicate before marrying the twice-divorced American Wallis Simpson. (PROSE: Players)

Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom was crowned on 2 June 1953, (TV: The Idiot's Lantern) and served well into the 21st century. (TV: Voyage of the Damned)

The alien Wire attempted to take the energy from the millions of humans watching her 1953 Coronation on their televisions. However, the Tenth Doctor foiled the Wire's plans. (TV: The Idiot's Lantern)

Students at Brendon Public School (as well as the rest of Great Britain), where the Brigadier taught, celebrated the silver anniversary of Elizabeth II's coronation in 1977. (TV: Mawdryn Undead)

In 1988, her path almost crossed that of the Seventh Doctor (who almost but not quite recognised her) at Windsor Castle as she walked her pet corgis about the grounds. (TV: Silver Nemesis)

Elizabeth II was concurrently the Queen of Australia, a situation with which not all Australians were satisfied. The Fourth and Fifth Doctor's companion Tegan Jovanka, who described herself as "downright Bolshie," favoured her country's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a republic. (AUDIO: The Children of Seth)

21st century Edit

On Christmas Day 2006, the blood control powers of the Sycorax (operating out of a ship hovering over London) threatened to make Elizabeth II, as well as the rest of the British Royal Family jump off a roof and kill themselves. (TV: The Christmas Invasion)

Due to the Sycorax invasion and the "Christmas Star" incident occurring on consecutive Christmases in London, most of the city's residents fled during Christmas 2008. The Queen staunchly decided to remain in Buckingham Palace. On Christmas Day, the alien Titanic almost crashed into Buckingham Palace; the Tenth Doctor telephoned the Palace and spoke a pre-arranged code number that resulted in the immediate evacuation of the Queen and her staff, but at the last moment he was able to pull the ship up above the palace. The Queen thanked the Doctor by name. (TV: Voyage of the Damned)

In Easter 2009, the Tenth Doctor left his TARDIS in Buckingham Palace gardens, telling Captain Erisa Magambo that the Queen did not mind. (TV: Planet of the Dead)

Various accounts have Britain ruled by a king in 1997 (TV: Battlefield, the 2000s (AUDIO: The Longest Night), and July 2012. (PROSE: The Shadows of Avalon) Whatever the date, eventually Queen Elizabeth was eventually succeeded by Charles III, along with his Queen, Camilla. Charles himself was succeeded by William V. (PROSE: Revenge of the Judoon)

In 2050, when the British government was controlled by Lomax, a Korven from the far future, Britain was ruled by a King. An Oroborus arrived on Earth around his birthday, causing time distortions which meant that some people complained about missing the King's birthday message, and others saw it twice. (TV: Oroborus)

22nd century Edit

In 2161, during the Dalek occupation, the last monarch of Britain died. In 2199, Lord Haldoran planned to become the first monarch of Britain in thirty-eight years. (PROSE: Legacy of the Daleks)

52nd century Edit

In 5145, Elizabeth X caught River Song attempting to steal Vincent van Gogh's painting, The Pandorica Opens. After holding River at gunpoint, she saw the painting and learned for whom it was meant before letting her go. (TV: The Pandorica Opens)

Far future Edit

Elizabeth X of the United Kingdom, (also known as Liz Ten) was the Queen Regnant of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the time during which Earth was devastated by solar flares in the late 30th century. Having made herself immortal (or near-immortal), she lived for centuries (TV: The Beast Below) and lived until at least the 52nd century. (TV: The Pandorica Opens)

At some point, the British monarchy was deposed and the last monarch was executed. Footage of that event could be viewed through the Gogglebox located on the Moon. (AUDIO: The Reaping)

Alternate timelines Edit

In an alternative timeline accidentally created by Jamie McCrimmon, the Glorious Revolution was a failure and James II retained the throne until his death. Consequently, the Jacobite Risings and the Battle of Culloden never took place. James II's grandson, Charles Edward Stuart, better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, eventually ascended the throne as King Charles III. He was still the reigning monarch in 1788. (AUDIO: The Glorious Revolution)

In an alternate timeline in which Germany won World War II, Edward VIII was restored to the throne with Wallis as his Queen in 1940. He signed a treaty which established Great Britain as a protectorate of the German Reich. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus)

Parallel universes Edit

In a parallel space-time continuum, the regime of the fascist Republic of Great Britain had the Royal Family executed in 1943. (TV: Inferno)

Edward IX was King of England in a more technologically advanced parallel universe. (COMIC: Who's Who?)

In a parallel world, the starship Titanic did hit Buckingham Palace and caused a nuclear explosion. (TV: Turn Left)

In Arthur's World, a parallel universe, Arthur was King of England in the 8th century. (TV: Battlefield)

Behind the scenes Edit

Torchwood website Edit

On the series 1 version of the Torchwood website, a case file outlined the fall of Torchwood One. It suggested after a massive loss in life and technology, that it was recommended to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for "the immediate closure of Torchwood One, together with the formation of a steering committee to fully examine future options." [1]

Footnotes Edit

  1. Report: Closure of Torchwood One. Torchwood website. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved on 25 July 2013.