Cape Canaveral (also known as Cape Kennedy) was a location in Florida, proximate to Titusville and home to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, from which American spacecraft were launched. The Eighth Doctor and Deborah Castle once went there to stow away on the Atlantis space shuttle in order to reach the Doctor's daughter, Miranda Dawkins, who was then on a ship in Earth orbit. (PROSE: Father Time)
On 8 April 1969, the Eleventh Doctor searched a warehouse nearby to find the girl who had been telephoning President Nixon. (TV: The Impossible Astronaut) Later, he lands the TARDIS near Cape Kennedy again before the Apollo 11 launch to implement his plan to defeat the Silence. (TV: Day of the Moon)
Behind the scenes Edit
Father Time is fairly silent on what, exactly, Canaveral is. Thus, the best we can say from the evidence in that novel is that it is a "location in Florida". In real life, of course, it is a geographic feature and a US Air Force base, which many people think of as a "NASA base".