Escapology was the technique of extrication from confinement.
Generations of Time Lord renegades discovered that escapology was the most important skill in the universe. During the War, the War Cardinals taught the basics of escapology to Time Lord operatives in training centers on Gallifrey XII. (PROSE: Alien Bodies)
The Twelfth Doctor said he taught Harry Houdini everything he knew. (COMIC: The Swords of Kali) On other occasions, the Doctor gave credit to Houdini for his escapology know-how. (PROSE: The Sorcerer's Apprentice, TV: Planet of the Spiders, Revenge of the Cybermen, AUDIO: 1001 Nights, COMIC: Voyager, COMIC: Facades, PROSE: Cat's Cradle: Time's Crucible, Independence Day, Frontier Worlds, TV: Dreamland, GAME: Shadows of the Vashta Nerada) The Third Doctor specifically said Houdini taught him everything he knew. (PROSE: Independence Day)