Fascism was a political ideology.
In the 1930s, Cecelia Pollard was a member of the League of English Fascists. (AUDIO: A Blind Eye) Conversely, her father Lord Richard Pollard considered them to be "a rum lot". (AUDIO: The Fall of the House of Pollard)
The Seventh Doctor's companion Ace was disheartened and frustrated when she contemplated the survival of fascism beyond the Second World War despite the defeat of the Nazis, even though she believed the war should have been the war to crush the ideology. She cited the murder of her friend Manisha Purkayastha at the hands of racists (TV: Ghost Light) as well as some of her own encounters with fascists and neo-Nazis (TV: Remembrance of the Daleks, Silver Nemesis) as regrettable evidence of its survival. (PROSE: Illegal Alien)