"Food" or "foodstuff" was the name given to edible objects. It was consumed around the entire universe, by many species and different alien races. "Vittles" was a colloquial name for food. (TV: Horror of Fang Rock)
To find out what kind of food a life form ate someone had to look at its teeth. Canine teeth were used for spearing and ripping through meat. Incisors were used for cutting up food. Molars were used for grinding up food. Pre-molars were used for chewing food. The Judoon had all four - the teeth of an omnivore, which meaned they ate meat and vegetables. (WC: Teeth and Eating)
The Doctor was rather fond of Earth food, most likely because he liked Earth so much in general. In particular, he had a sweet spot for jelly babies, (TV: Robot, Doctor Who) celery (TV: Castrovalva) and fish fingers and custard (TV: The Eleventh Hour) over the course of his many incarnations.