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Galvani was a scientist who explored electromagnetic forces in living beings. He was able to make frogs' legs move by subjecting them to electromagnetic spark.

In June 1816, inspired by Galvani's experiments, Percy Shelley suggested to connect a lightning rod with the apparently dead body of the Eighth Doctor during a thunderstorm to see what will happen. As the result of this experiment, the Doctor was resurrected back to life but transformed into a violent monster. (AUDIO: Mary's Story)