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Islam was one of the major religions of Earth.

During the Crusades, Muslims, particularly those who fought in the conflict, were referred to as Saracens. (TV: The Crusade) In the 19th century Muslims were sometimes called "Mahometans" or "Mussulmen". (PROSE: Head of State)

Islam's holy book was called the Qu'ran (AUDIO: The Feast of Magog, PROSE: Head of State) and described the teachings of the prophet Muhammed. It forbid Muslims from consuming any food labeled haram and taught tolerance of Christians and Jews, though in the 19th century many Muslims neglected those instructions. Muslims made pilgrimages to Mecca and revered the month of Ramadan. (PROSE: Head of State) In Islam, the left hand was seen as unclean and wasn't used for cooking, eating, or greeting people. Muslims worshipped Allah, and used the prayer "Allahu Akbar", meaning "god is great". (PROSE: Lucifer Rising)

King Richard I of England fought Saracens in the Crusades. He was aided in his efforts by the First Doctor, Ian Chesterton, Barbara Wright and Vicki Pallister in 1190. (TV: The Crusade)

In 1240, Bishop Vasil hoped to form an alliance with the Mongols to fight against the forces of Islam. (PROSE: Bunker Soldiers)

In the 13th century, (TV: The Sontaran Experiment) Bloodaxe thought that Linx was a Saracen. Bloodaxe had heard tales of the Saracens' "eastern magic". (TV: The Time Warrior)

Pakistan was envisioned as a nation for Muslims when it was formed through the Partition of India on 17 August 1947. Religious tensions were rife through the partition. Marriages between Muslims and Hindus, such as with Umbreen and Prem, could result in violence, as the Hindu Prem was killed by his own brother Manish, who also killed the man who would have officiated their marriage. (TV: Demons of the Punjab)

Unlike Prem, Umbreen's second husband was also a Muslim. When she moved to Sheffield she was the first Muslim woman to work in a textile mill in South Yorkshire. (TV: Demons of the Punjab)

In the 1970s, two-thirds of the population of Kebiria was Muslim. (PROSE: Dancing the Code)

In the 21st century, Islamic terrorist group known as al-Qa'ida was active. In 2005, the Internal Counter-Intelligence Service - themselves seeing all Muslims as an enemy within Britain - faked a series of Islamic suicide bombings as part of a coup plot, and set up the suicide of Deputy Prime Minister Meena Cartwright to imply she'd been targeted for her faith. (She was, in fact, Catholic.) In the ensuing ethnic riots, dozens of Muslims were burned alive in a mosque in north England. (AUDIO: The Longest Night)

Rita was a Muslim, and believed the prison ship to be Jahannam, the Islamic concept of Hell. (TV: The God Complex)

In 2016, Amira was praying insha'Allah and had to imagine the call for prayer and guess the correct times. One was supposed to wash for prayer. (PROSE: The Stone House)

St John Colchester's husband, Colin Colchester-Price, was a Muslim. (AUDIO: Changes Everything) Colin's mother disapproved of their marriage. (AUDIO: Aliens & Sex & Chips & Gravy)

Yasmin Khan was a practising Muslim who had been called a terrorist after leaving her Mosque. (TV: Rosa) She believed much of her family to also be Muslim. (TV: Demons of the Punjab)

In 2157, Federique Moshe-Rabaan was a seyyed, a descendant of the Prophet in Islam. (PROSE: Lucifer Rising)