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James Moriarty was the arch-enemy of Sherlock Holmes.

In order to investigate Baron Maupertuis, Moriarty used the alias O'Connor and donned a ginger wig as part of his disguise. He also wrote a paper on the mathematics of folding higher dimensions. (PROSE: All-Consuming Fire) He wrote On the Dynamics of the Asteroid. (PROSE: The Book of the Enemy) Moriarty died in 1893. (PROSE: The Found World)

By one account, "Jimmy Moriarty" was a 21st century scientific genius who was given a method of ritualistic time travel by the Celestis during the War in Heaven. Moriarty conducted a time experiment by sending Thomas Corkle to the late 19th century to try to prevent Sherlock Holmes from becoming a successful detective. (PROSE: Erasing Sherlock)

Moriarty also existed in the Land of Fiction as a fictional character. (COMIC: Character Assassin) Many scholars believed that Arthur Conan Doyle based the character of Moriarty after Simon Newcomb. (PROSE: The Baker Street Dozen) A number of Moriarty Remakes were made in the City of the Saved, many of whom attacked the Great Detective Agency. (PROSE: Eliminating the Impossible, The Baker Street Dozen)

The Master once claimed that the Seventh Doctor flattered himself by thinking of himself as being the Moriarty to the Master's Holmes when he actually provided merely "adequate opposition worthy of very little attention". (AUDIO: The Two Masters)

The Eleventh Doctor, while dressed like Sherlock Holmes, once compared the Great Intelligence to Moriarty, calling it "the clever one". (TV: The Snowmen)

Behind the scenes