|Also called:||Sol IV, the Red Planet|
|Location:||The solar system|
|Natives:||Ice Warriors, the Flood|
- You may be looking for the short story.
According to the Fifth Doctor, Mars had gravity which was "about a third" of the sorts of planets the human, Peri Brown, was used to. Its surface was powdery and dark red in colour. Mars had roughly a four-minute radio delay from Houston on Earth. (AUDIO: Red Dawn)
According to Daniel Llewellyn, Mars was 50 million miles away from Earth in December 2006. (TV: The Christmas Invasion) Yuri Kerenski described the distance from Bowie Base One on Mars to Earth as 40 million miles in November 2059. (TV: The Waters of Mars)
The Fourth Doctor theorised that, circa 12 million BC, the Fendahl passed from its homeworld to Mars on its way to Earth, fleeing the efforts of the Time Lords to trap it in a time loop. (TV: Image of the Fendahl) This phenomena became known as the Great Death in Ice Warrior history. (PROSE: GodEngine)
The age of the Ice Warriors
At the height of their civilisation, they became peaceful, honour bound beings who were artisans as well as builders. They hunted only for food and never fought one another and thus never experienced any form of war. (AUDIO: The Judgement of Isskar)
Accounts differ as to the downfall of the Ice Warriors, with some mentioning being at their peak and active thousands of years BC, (TV: Cold War) and others claiming their atmosphere to have been destroyed "centuries" before the 21st century, (AUDIO: Red Dawn) or even millions of years BC. (AUDIO: Deimos)
Whilst favouring colder climates, they populated the equator of Mars; their shell-shaped buildings were designed to reflect heat. In this period, their world was vibrant and alive. Water was plentiful and there were canals on the planet. The Martians lived in peace for twelve thousand years. This civilisation was shattered when a segment of the Key to Time was discovered by time travellers. Its removal led to the creation of a gravity well that devastated the planet.
For the next three decades, the civilisation was devastated by climatic changes. Some among the Martians managed to get off world. Those on Mars fought among themselves for food and shelter, becoming a warrior race. After another thirty years, the energies from the stolen piece of the Key to Time were spent and the ground settled. The remaining Martians emerged onto their world to rebuild their civilisation. (AUDIO: The Judgement of Isskar)
However, it was the Ice Lord Izdaal who discovered that the damaged atmosphere meant that ultraviolet radiation led to many of their children being sickly. He declared that Mars was no longer capable of supporting life but was ignored. He stood before the "Red Dawn" and was killed by the radiation. This showed that the world was dying. This led both to the salvation of the race as well as their transformation into a conqueror species. (AUDIO: Red Dawn, The Judgement of Isskar)
At some point prior to his travels to ancient Mars, the Fifth Doctor was surprised that there were Ice Warriors still around by the 21st century; he assumed they "all" left Mars after its atmosphere thinned "centuries" before the 21st century, while Lord Zzaal said the Ice Warriors had discovered "primitive, early life" developing on Earth before his people went into suspended animation. (AUDIO: Red Dawn) The Eighth Doctor dated this time as "many millions of years" before the 23rd century. (AUDIO: Deimos)
By human prehistory, the Ice Warriors already possessed spaceflight. With their ecosystem dying and becoming more inhospitable, the Ice Warriors, led by Varga, sent an expedition to Earth, but the ship crashed and was frozen in a glacier where it would remain for millennia. (TV: The Ice Warriors)
Around 5000 BC, the Osirians reached Mars and set up underground bases beneath pyramids that they built. Sutekh was imprisoned in a tomb in Egypt and kept in a state of paralysis by an energy beam transmitted from the main pyramid on Mars itself. A warning message, Beware Sutekh was broadcast continually by radio. (TV: Pyramids of Mars)
Modern pre-colonisation period
Early 20th century
On 30 October 1938, many humans across the United States took Orson Welles' radio adaptation of H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds literally, and believed that Martians had really invaded. (AUDIO: Invaders from Mars)
Later 20th century
Mars was a target of a series of British manned space probes overseen by the British Space Centre (a renamed British Rocket Group) and constructed with International Electromatics technology. (PROSE: Who Killed Kennedy) Mars Probe 6 and Mars Probe 7 made contact with a group of peaceful, radioactive humanoids. Another spacecraft, Recovery 7, entered Mars orbit to determine what had happened to earlier probes. (TV: The Ambassadors of Death)
In 1977, Britain's Mars Probe 13 astronauts accidentally wandered into the city of the Argyre Clan Ice Warriors and were slaughtered after they spied on a research facility. To appease the Ice Warriors, the British government's representative, Minister Grayhaven, had mission commander Alexander Christian framed for the astronauts' deaths and imprisoned. He agreed to ensure humanity would not return to Mars. For the next two decades, the British secret service spread what was, according to one account, disinformation, that Mars was uninhabitable and sabotaged NASA data in order to discourage Mars missions. This account claimed Mars' atmosphere was breathable, (PROSE: The Dying Days) though other accounts showed Mars to be long-dead with an unbreathable atmosphere to humans and Time Lords by the 21st century. (AUDIO: Red Dawn, TV: The Waters of Mars) Though he was able to breathe on the surface, according to Lord Zzaal, even without the threat of the red dawn, the low temperature and loss of water following the thinning of the atmosphere would mean an Ice Warrior could only survive for a few days. (AUDIO: Red Dawn)
- The Doctor refers to an extinct Martian civilisation whose intelligence and beauty far surpassed that of his own people, which doesn't seem likely to be a reference to either the Ice Warriors or the Osirians.
In 1997, Britain returned to Mars with the Mars 97 mission - a deliberate plan by Grayhaven and Argyre Clan Lord Xznaal to give the Ice Warriors a pretence for a "retaliatory" conquest of the United Kingdom, with Grayhaven placed in power as a Prime Minister. When it turned out the Ice Warriors were using him for a pretext to wipe out and areoform Earth, Greyhaven wiped out the Argyre's nests on Mars with the Mars 97 Orbiter. Xznaal was defeated soon after by UNIT and the Eighth Doctor. (PROSE: The Dying Days)
Circa the dawn of the 21st century, a space expedition funded by Leo Webster arrived on Mars in the Argosy to find an Ice Warrior and use it to create a clone army augmented by Ice Warrior biology and technology. The Argosy crew arrived in the tomb of Izdaal, whose guards were awoken from suspended animation. Paul Webster tried kidnapping Sub Commander Sstast, but the Argosy was shot down by the Ice Warriors. He tried escaping in the Ice Warriors' rocket with the Fifth Doctor and seventeen-year-old Tanya Webster as hostages.
Lord Zzaal allowed the Doctor and Tanya to escape Paul while Zzaal sacrificed himself to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. With Zzaal no longer in mortal danger, Sstast fired a sonic charge at Paul, killing him. Tanya stayed behind on Mars to became an ambassador for Earth. (AUDIO: Red Dawn)
On July 2058, the first human colony was established, staffed by an international crew under Adelaide Brooke. On the 21st November 2059, the base was overrun by a sentient, water-based lifeform and the base was destroyed to prevent it reaching Earth. Originally, nobody survived; the Tenth Doctor altered time, saving Brooke and two other crew members (though Brooke would kill herself soon after). (TV: The Waters of Mars)
The Ice Warriors had not given up their ambitions to colonise Earth. A strike team was sent to take control of T-Mat, and use it to transport seed pods to Earth that were designed to terraform its environment to an environment more suited to them. The fleet was destroyed thanks to the Second Doctor. (TV: The Seeds of Death)
According to Harold, who had watched a documentary about the Ice Warriors on the History Channel, the Ice Warriors were "supposed to have been wiped out" following the T-Mat incident. In the 23rd century, the Ice Warrior expert, Professor Schooner, declared the Ice Warriors "extinct" for "centuries", while Gregson Grenville had learnt in school that "[t]hey were all melted when the invasion fleet spiralled into the Sun". According to Grenville, nobody knew of any Ice Warriors existing after this period until the attack on Deimos Moonbase in the 23rd century. Human tourists to the catacombs of Deimos in the 23rd century, such as Margaret, considered the moon the "final resting place" of the Ice Warriors and she and Harold expressed shock that "real" Ice Warriors could ever exist. One of the Ice Warriors that awoke from the tombs on Deimos considered him and eight others the last of their race. The Eighth Doctor corrected him, mentioning the tombs in the Sol system's asteroid belt containing Ice Warriors yet to have been awakened. (AUDIO: Deimos)
By the early 22nd century, Mars had been partially terraformed into a tourist resort for the wealthy. As the seas and canals were not red enough for the tourists, cranberry juice was poured into them. This human activity led to malevolent, formless entities escaping from the sea's reflective surface. The Ninth Doctor and Rose defeated them; the Doctor believing the threat of the entities returning would force humanity to treat Mars with respect. (COMIC: The Cruel Sea) Later in the 22nd century, Mars had ceased being a pure resort and had residential settlements.
Shortly after the Dalek defeat, Anji Kapoor was stranded on Mars for four years. According to one account, at this time, Ice Warriors would sometimes stage attacks on human workplaces in an attempt to gain independence from humanity; these attacks largely failed. (PROSE: Fear Itself)
However, the Eighth Doctor mentioned that colonies of humans existed on Mars, numbering 300,000 in the 23rd century according to Temperance Finch, although according to this account, no Ice Warriors were known to live there, and were widely considered to have become extinct until a tomb containing live Ice Warriors was found on Deimos. (AUDIO: Deimos)
According to one account, the Eighth Doctor altered the beam of the atmospheric re-ioniser on Deimos Moonbase to make Mars more Earth-like for its inhabitants, saving them from being killed by the beam. The feedback the Doctor caused from the ionisation beam set the atmosphere of the moonbase alight, setting the entire moon on fire, making it an artificial sun to heat the human colonists. (AUDIO: The Resurrection of Mars)
In 2545, during the Dalek War, the Daleks were able to seize control of Mars due to a failure to deploy Mars' nuclear deterrent. They would be eventually driven off-world by Earth and its allies. By 2595, humans celebrated the five hundredth anniversary of the start of human colonisation. (PROSE: Beige Planet Mars)
In the 27th century, Mars' President Lithops commissioned the development of a time machine. Alien assassins attempted to use it to erase his timeline; the Tenth Doctor stopped them and destroyed the unsafe machine. (COMIC: Bus Stop)
Circa the 39th or 40th century, Mars and the Ice Warriors were part of a Galactic Federation that included Earth, Alpha Centauri and Arcturus. The presence of trisilicate made the planet politically important. (TV: The Curse of Peladon)
- Under the influence and control of the Usurians, a colony of humans temporarily moved to Mars, then on to Pluto after overpopulation had made Earth unlivable. (TV: The Sun Makers)
- The Fourth Doctor and Sarah Jane Smith visited a colonised Mars. (PROSE: Scarab of Death)
- The Fourth Doctor again travelled to the planet with Leela and visited a terraformed, commercialised Mars abundant with commercialised imagery derived from human science fiction. (PROSE: Crimson Dawn)
- The Seventh Doctor stated that Mars had been terraformed on four different occasions by four different races in a million year time frame. (PROSE: GodEngine)
- The Museum of the Last Ones had specimens of extinct species from Mars. (PROSE: The Last Dodo)
- Ben Jackson asked the Second Doctor to visit the planet, in vain, since the TARDIS would have landed on the Moon eventually. (TV: The Moonbase)
- The Fourth Doctor claimed to have a pilot's licence for a Mars-Venus rocket run. (TV: Robot)
Behind the scenes
- Though unpublished during his lifetime, David Whitaker's short story Rennigan's Record is the earliest portrayal of Mars in the Doctor Who universe.
- According to non-narrative information in DWBIT 49, the Daleks invaded Mars while on their way to Earth. Colonists fought back and, with the help of the Ice Warriors, created a virus which ate away at Dalek cable insulation. The Dalek forces were driven away from the colony and decided just to focus on the Earth.