Memories were the mental record of a lifeform's past experiences.
Two of the Doctor's companions had eidetic memory: Zoe Heriot (TV: The Wheel in Space) and Melanie Bush. (TV: Terror of the Vervoids)
Jamie McCrimmon and Zoe Heriot's memories of their time with the Second Doctor where erased by the Time Lords before they were returned to their original times. (TV: The War Games)
As his other selves fell victim to a time scoop, the Fifth Doctor felt himself being "whittled away" and commented on the importance of memory. (TV: The Five Doctors)
A man is the sum of his memories, you know. A Time Lord even more so.
According to Madame Xing, by the time the Eighth Doctor visited her, his memory had been interfered with on thirty-seven separate occasions, with eight of them still uncorrected. (PROSE: Halflife)
The Tenth Doctor had to erase Donna Noble's memories of their travels together, to save her mind from being overwhelmed by the Time Lord knowledge she gained from the meta-crisis. (TV: Journey's End)
A memory worm could suppress recent memories, causing short-term amnesia. (TV: The Snowmen, Time Heist)
Clara Oswald read the Doctor's name in The History of the Time War. When that timeline was later averted, however, she had no memory of it. (TV: Journey to the Centre of the TARDIS) The telepathic circuits of a dead TARDIS retrieved some of those lost memories. (TV: The Name of the Doctor)
Retcon was a drug used by Torchwood to remove memories of the organisation and/or alien encounters from witnesses. (TV: Everything Changes, Adam, They Keep Killing Suzie, Meat, Something Borrowed, COMIC: Shrouded) The drug was also used by other individuals and organisations, notably the mayor of the trap street, Ashildr. (TV: Face the Raven)
River Song used Mnemosine recall-wipe vapour to delete the memory of her encounters with the first nine incarnations of the Doctor. (GAME: The Eternity Clock)
The Black Archive of the UNIT was provided with a memory filter as a security system. (TV: The Day of the Doctor)
Because their time streams were out of sync, the War Doctor and the Tenth Doctor couldn't retain memories of saving Gallifrey along with the Eleventh Doctor. (TV: The Day of the Doctor)