An orchestrator is a person who interprets a composer's score to maximise its effect when played by a full orchestra. In this pursuit, he or she will be most concerned with determining which individual instruments play which specific parts of the music. Often, but not always, the orchestrator will also be the conductor of the orchestra.
In Doctor Who history, orchestrators were not formally credited until late in the RTD era, and then only on special occasion, as with The End of Time. During the Moffat era, the orchestrator began to be credited on a more regular basis. As of 2011 the only individual ever credited as an orchestrator was Ben Foster, who also acted as the conductor of the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Doctor Who's usual orchestra.