The Roman Empire was a large empire that existed in Europe for about eight centuries, [source needed] starting several centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ. [source needed] It was centred in the city of Rome, though it encompassed cities like Pompeii and Byzantium and had a presence as far as Cardiff, where a Roman fort was situated.
After several failed attempts, the Roman Empire succeeded in conquering Britain in 43. The Roman occupation of Britain lasted until the early 5th century. (AUDIO: The Wrath of the Iceni) One of these failed attempts was led by Julius Caesar in 55 BC. (AUDIO: Living History)
In 73, a Roman legion under Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, which was being held by rebel Jews. The siege ended when the Jews killed each other. The First Doctor and his companions were involved in those events. (PROSE: The Last Days)
The Doctor visited southern Europe many times during the Roman period. At one point, the First Doctor met Emperor Nero and inadvertently gave him the idea to burn Rome. (TV: The Romans) He was also alleged to have met, among other humans native to this time, Hannibal (TV: Robot) and Cleopatra. (TV: The Masque of Mandragora, The Girl in the Fireplace) He was also familiar with the accounts of Julius Caesar and Tacitus of the customs of the Celts and their Druid priests, noting them as among the few historically reliable ones, but with no great detail. (TV: The Stones of Blood) He also visited Judea during the reign of Augustus, and beat Mary and Joseph to the last room in a local inn. (TV: Voyage of the Damned)
In an alternate timeline where all of history occurred at the same time, parts of the Roman Empire were integrated into Earth in 2011. Winston Churchill was the Holy Roman Emperor, with the title of Caesar. A Senate existed, and Roman soldiers were seen. (TV: The Wedding of River Song)