Scotland was a constituent country of the United Kingdom. According to the Eleventh Doctor, it was "never conquered, not even a Shetland". (TV: Let's Kill Hitler) The capital of Scotland was Edinburgh, although the largest city was Glasgow, which was home to Torchwood Two. (PROSE: The Twilight Streets) It was referenced many times when the Eleventh Doctor, Rory Williams or Amy herself were making jokes about Amy's personality. (TV: The Eleventh Hour, The Beast Below, Victory of the Daleks, A Good Man Goes to War, Let's Kill Hitler, Asylum of the Daleks)
In 1705, the Alien Act was passed by the English Parliament. This forced the Scottish Parliament to negotiate full union with England. Later, the two countries' governments united to form the United Kingdom. This was opposed by Jacobite rebels.
In 1879, the Tenth Doctor and Rose Tyler battled a werewolf at the Torchwood Estate in Scotland. Also present was Queen Victoria, who was inspired by the events to establish the Torchwood Institute. (TV: Tooth and Claw)
In 2003, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart acted as an advisor to the newly established U.S. state of Malebolgia, due to the role he played in the recently devolved Scottish Parliament. (AUDIO: Minuet in Hell)
During the 29th century, when the nations of the Earth were evacuating the planet due to solar flares, Scotland refused to be a part of Starship UK, instead building their own ship. (TV: The Beast Below)