Captain Jack Harkness brought a sonic blaster with him to the year 1941 during his con man days. He used it to open a door by removing the lock. After switching it with a banana, the Ninth Doctor used it to blast away part of the wall to escape the gas mask zombies. Rose, who called it a "squareness gun" because of its blast pattern, used it to create a hole in the floor. (TV: The Doctor Dances)
Jack apparently left it in the TARDIS when he was abandoned by the Doctor. The Tenth Doctor denied permission for Emily Winter to take the sonic blaster as it was reserved for "someone else". (COMIC: Tesseract)
By the time River Song used it, the handle had changed from a dark brown to an ivory colour. (TV: The Doctor Dances, Forest of the Dead) River used the blaster as a stun weapon and to manipulate access hatches into opening. (GAME: The Eternity Clock) During her expedition to the Library, she used it to aid herself and several others in escaping the Vashta Nerada, by making holes in the wall and floor. (TV: Silence in the Library/Forest of the Dead)
The blaster used digital technology to create a sonic wave, projected into the form of pulsing squares of blue light, which could cut through thick walls. It also had a reverse function which could replace the removed chunk of material afterwards. This was deemed a "special feature" of the blaster, and was said to use up a lot of the batteries on which it ran. (TV: The Doctor Dances)
In the hands of the Doctor and his friends, the blaster was never seen to be used as an offensive weapon, but rather as a tool for a means of escape or forced entry. However, Jack brandished the gun at those infected by the nanogenes and explained that the blaster could also function as a sonic disruptor and a sonic cannon.