|The Ice Warriors|
|Novelised as:||Doctor Who and the Ice Warriors|
|Main enemy:||The Ice Warriors|
|Main setting:||Brittanicus Base|
|Number of episodes:||6|
|Premiere broadcast:||11 November - 16 December 1967|
|Doctor Who television stories|
|The Abominable Snowmen||The Enemy of the World|
|Another memorable moment|
The Ice Warriors was the third story of season 5 of Doctor Who. Broadcast in 1967, it marked the first appearance of the recurring aliens, the Ice Warriors. Episodes two and three remain absent from the BBC archive. They were recreated using animation for the serial's DVD release.
The TARDIS arrives on Earth in a new ice age. The travellers make their way into a base where scientists, commanded by Leader Clent, are using an ioniser device to combat the advance of a glacier.
A giant humanoid creature, called an Ice Warrior by one of the scientists, has been found buried in the nearby glacier. When thawed, it revives and is revealed to be Varga, captain of a Martian spacecraft that landed on Earth centuries ago and is still in the glacier. Varga sets about freeing his comrades and formulating a plan to conquer the Earth — Mars itself is now dead.
The scientists realise that continued use of the ioniser could make the ship's engines explode. Their computer is unable to advise them without more information. Disaster seems imminent. The disaffected scientist Penley, supported by the Second Doctor, decides to risk activating the ioniser. There is only a minor explosion which destroys the Martians and, at the same time, checks the ice flow.
Senior control technician Jan Garrett and her staff struggle to control an ioniser. There has been a pulse stoppage and they are minutes away from evacuation. Garret manages to stop it, much to the pleasure of Leader Clent. She says they need Penley back, a proposition for which he snaps at her. Clent consults a computer that gives data regarding other ioniser bases in America, Australasia, South Africa and Asia. This ioniser base, the Brittanicus Base, isn't holding up as well as theirs. Clent worries that they will not be able to hold back the glaciers. He discovers that one of his scientists, Arden, is still out on the glacier. Furious, he tries to contact him.
The remaining senior scientist, Arden, is out on the glacier searching for archaeological finds. He discovers an armoured man in a block of ice. Arden and his colleagues ignore appeals to return to base and help Clent control the ioniser, intent on digging the ice man from the glacier.
Clent is furious at this dissent. The glaciers lose stability again and the evacuation procedure is set off again.
Outside, the TARDIS materialises onto a snow drift and falls on its side. The Doctor and his companions clamber out. Jamie, looking at the weather, speculates that they may still be in Tibet, but they soon discover a large dome made of plastic. As they explore it a door opens and two bedraggled men leave. The Doctor inspects the door as soon as they are out of sight and enters with Jamie and Victoria.
Arden makes contact with the base and says he has found a large man in the ice and intends on bringing it in. Arden and Clent are polar opposites — Clent is about protocol whilst Arden is about discovery.
The Doctor, Jamie and Victoria are surprised to discover the house is like an old Victorian mansion. The evacuation procedure goes off around their ears and a woman comes up and puts badges, which read "Evacuation Flight 7: Scavenger", on the three of them. The Doctor hears the sound of a computer that is running incorrectly. Victoria wants to leave but the Doctor insists and goes through a door into the main base. He immediately bursts into action. His action prevents a reactor explosion. Clent is initially appalled at this man bursting into his base but is eventually impressed.
Arden and his men are confused by the image of the man. He appears to be wearing armour. They begin the excavation process. Two scavengers look on. The scientists trigger an avalanche which causes one of Arden's party to plummet to his death. One of the scavengers is injured too. Arden and his one surviving scientist return to base with the man.
Despite the Doctor not having any "formal qualifications", Clent is impressed with his abilities. He seems bemused that the Doctor doesn't know what the base does. The Doctor says he and his friends have been in Tibet. Clent puts the Doctor to the test. He states that a second Ice Age has beset the world and this base is trying to control it, and asks the Doctor to figure out how. The Doctor's mind flits from possibility to possibility before landing on ionisation — the correct answer. Clent explains that after the advent of artificial food, crops became redundant, which lowered production of carbon dioxide and stopped the Earth from withholding its heat. Ionisation intensifies the sun's heat on certain parts of the Earth like a magnifying glass. Humans are having to control the machine at the moment due to the fact that the super computer is still processing the data. They are interrupted by the return of Arden, wheeling his find in on a trolley. The Doctor inspects it and is confused by the helmet, which looks like it is a Viking helmet — which is far too late in history. On closer inspection, as the ice melts, the Doctor sees an electronic connection. The Doctor rushes off to inform Clent and Arden. Jamie and Victoria are left alone. They flirt. Little do they know that the creature has entirely thawed and is beginning to move.
The creature becomes mobile, knocks Jamie unconscious and takes Victoria as a hostage.
Clent asks the computer if they should accept the Doctor as one of their team. The computer states that he has a high IQ but is ill disciplined and hot headed in certain situations. They are interrupted by the Doctor's news about the warrior. He concludes that if the creature is indeed alien, there could be a spaceship powered by atomic systems under the glacier. Using the ioniser in that area could cause a massive explosion and destroy the base. The crew are discussing this when Jamie bursts in and reports the creature has come to life and taken Victoria. The Doctor, while inspecting the scene, concludes that the Ice Warrior must have used the power pack to accelerate to a higher heat and thaw the ice.
The creature has got Victoria in a store cupboard. He states he is a warrior from the planet Mars, who has indeed been frozen for millennia after his ship crashed and his party was encased by an avalanche. He insists Victoria help him find his ship and crew. With the extra troops he can decide whether to return home or stay and conquer the Earth.
Clent consults the computer. It states that ionisation should continue but the ship needs to be found. The computer reschedules the workload and frees up Arden to go. Jamie will accompany him.
The scavengers have made it back to their hideout. Storr's injuries are so bad that his friend needs to return to the base to steal medical supplies.
Victoria is forced to help the Ice Warrior to locate the power packs. He threatens Victoria with his sonic gun, which will burst her brain.
Arden and Jamie see no sign of Victoria or the Ice Warrior out in the tundra. Furthermore, their equipment is being jammed. Clent orders them to go back.
The scavenger has managed to infiltrate the base. As he rounds a corner he sees Victoria, who gestures for him to hide. He sees the huge creature lead Victoria into the room.
In the control room, the Doctor asks Clent why they have no expert on the base. Clent explains that they did but he walked out and abandoned them as he could not put up with Clent's domineering ways. He does admit that they are crying out for someone with his knowledge though.
Victoria tries to stall the Ice Warrior but he soon finds the power pack. The Ice Warrior now tells Victoria that she is to accompany him to the ice mountains. They meet Clent before leaving and the Ice Warrior leaves him unconscious and badly wounded. The scavenger tires to revive Clent when the Doctor finds him. The Doctor works out that he must be Penley. Once Penley is sure the Doctor is dealing with Clent, he leaves the base, despite the Doctor's protests that he is needed to help with the ioniser. Clent comes round just as Garrett informs them that Victoria and the Ice Warrior have broken through the perimeter. The Doctor says they should not follow them as that would be the Ice Warrior's plan.
Meanwhile, in the glacier, the Ice Warrior finds four of his frozen comrades and uses his sonic gun to free them. He confirms that he has a plan for if Victoria's friends follow her.
Penley has administered the medicine to Storr and goes to explore the glacier for Victoria and the Ice Warrior. He is also coming round to the Doctor's suggestion that he could return to the base. The Ice Warrior has chiseled away at the ice, leaving the semi-exposed forms of his comrades. He prepares to revive them.
A number of Ice Warriors are resurrected, much to the terror of Victoria. Penley watches the whole process.
The Doctor prepares Jamie for his excursion with Arden. Arden blames himself for the whole situation, which causes Clent a rare moment of compassion. Before they leave, Clent orders them not to go looking for Victoria, much to the displeasure of Jamie.
Penley reports back to a fully healed Storr the situation regarding the Ice Warriors. He does not believe him. Their argument is interrupted by a noise outside. It is Garrett, who begs Penley to return to the base. He refuses, saying he does not want to be computerised. Garrett pulls out a tranquiliser but is disarmed by Storr. Storr wants to kill her but Penley lets her go. He tells her to look up some of his notes when she returns to base.
Now fully mobilised, some Ice Warriors take on the task of creating an ice cave. Others set about finding their craft and digging it out of the ice. Victoria is told she is to be kept with them as bait.
The Doctor is trying to figure out the calculation to save the base. Clent encourages him to use the computer, but the Doctor resists. Garrett comes in with the notes about which Penley told her. The Doctor takes one look and cracks the code. Clent says he must check with the computer — which causes the Doctor to become very offended. Arden reports back, saying he has discovered an ice cave and a ship.
They begin to take readings but minutes later, they are ambushed and gunned down by the Ice Warriors, who leave them for dead. A distraught Victoria is ushered into the ship. The Ice Warriors discuss destroying Victoria but they decide to keep her as bait. The Ice Warriors leave to fix the ship's propulsion unit. Penley has been watching and emerges from the shadows.
The Doctor reminds Clent that it has been a long time since they heard anything from Arden. They try to make contact but there is no reply.
Penley discovers that Arden is dead, but Jamie is still alive. Penley takes him back to his home.
Garrett comes back, reporting that the equation is perfect. Clent is overjoyed but soon realises he can't use it with Arden still outside.
Jamie awakes at Penley's cave and is eager to seek out Victoria. However, he is too weak and passes out.
Victoria, emerging unaccompanied from the ship, discovers Jamie's body gone. She finds the communication device on the ground and attempts to use it.
Unbeknownst to Victoria she is being observed by the Ice Warriors. They decide she must be stopped. They aim a weapon at her head.
The Doctor receives the transmission from Victoria, who tells them of the danger of the Ice Warriors and of Arden and, possibly, Jamie's death. She is probed by Clent for facts. As she does a weapon emerges from the side of the ship.
The Ice Warriors prepare to fire.
The Ice Warriors decide against killing Victoria so as to not raise suspicion. Clent grills Victoria for any information regarding the ship's propulsion system, keen to continue the process of ionising. She is not able to help.
An Ice Warrior is sent to capture Victoria again and use her as bait.
Victoria sees a figure coming and makes a run for it, dodging into the ice to avoid the Ice Warrior.
The Doctor uses an automatic chemical dispenser used on the base to create ammonium sulphide, which will be toxic to the Ice Warriors if Victoria's statement regarding them being Martians is to be believed. The Doctor states he intends to go and make contact with the Ice Warriors himself. Clent is very unhappy about this but is not faced with many other choices. The Doctor takes a communicator with him but refuses to take a weapon. He states he doesn't need a weapon as he intends to be taken prisoner.
Victoria flees ever deeper into the icy caves. She sees a communicator on the floor and attempts to retrieve it but is caught by an Ice Warrior. At just that moment an avalanche falls on the pair of them.
Storr and Penley continue to minister to Jamie. He awakes and is desperate to find Victoria. Storr is keen to accompany him. Jamie is terrified when he discovers he has no use of his legs.
An examination of the engines of the Martian craft shows them working, but low on fuel. The Ice Warriors need to know on what the base is powered to see if they can use it on their ship.
Victoria cries for help. She is not stuck in the avalanche but the Ice Warrior has been and is still gripped on to her.
Jamie is asleep again. Storr has decided the only way to save Jamie is to talk to the Ice Warriors. Penley is convinced that he should not go but Storr pushes past him with Penley in pursuit. Storr dashes behind a piece of ice to lose Penley and hears the call of Victoria.
Meanwhile Penley has found the Doctor and taken him to Jamie.
Storr finds Victoria and manages to free her. He is told that the Ice Warriors are against the scientists and begins to sympathise with them. Another avalanche forces them to leave.
The Ice Warriors are eager to attack the base but their leader says they must bide their time. Their discussion is interrupted by Storr leading a distraught Victoria to their ship. The Ice Warriors hold Victoria personally culpable for the death of her pursuer and lead her into the ship. They ignore Storr's offers of help, especially so when he denounces scientists at the very time they want technical aid. He is killed and left in the snow. The Ice Warriors go inside to question Victoria.
Back in the cave the Doctor determines Jamie's paralysis is temporary. Another avalanche rocks the cave. The glacier is moving ever quicker. The Doctor tasks Penley to escort Jamie back to the base. Penley protests but the Doctor states that everyone needs his help. The Doctor leaves to speak to the Ice Warriors.
Clent watches in shock as the glacier moves faster than it has ever done before. Garrett pushes Clent for a plan, but he says he is putting all his faith in the Doctor. The Doctor informs Clent on the video screen that he is going to make first contact.
The Doctor heads through the avalanches and knocks on the door of the ship. The weapon emerges but the door opens and the Doctor is allowed to enter the airlock. The Ice Warriors are suspicious of the Doctor's claims; this is only worsened when he refuses to answer questions. The Ice Warriors reduce the pressure in the airlock to zero until the Doctor explains his motives.
Seconds away from death, the Doctor agrees to the Ice Warriors' demands and tells them that he is a scientist. He is allowed entrance. The Doctor is unnerved by the sheer size of the Ice Warriors but plays it cool and says that he is the only chance they have of surviving. The Ice Warriors tell the Doctor that they think that the ioniser is a weapon. When he puts them right they demand to know why they haven't been freed previously.
Penley drags Jamie through the snow. They stop for a rest when they see a bear in the distance.
The Doctor explains that the ioniser has not been used as they are worried it will blow up the engine. The Ice Warriors will neither confirm nor deny the make up of their engine. If it is not harmful to ionisation they will be washed away in the flood; if it is harmful they will be blown up. The Doctor tries to wheedle the information out of the Ice Warriors but cannot. They demand to take away his communicator. The last thing he says is that if his friends at the base don't hear anything they will be forced to use the ioniser.
Clent and Garret, who have been listening via the communicator, take the Doctor's hint that they should prepare the ioniser. There is a modicum of doubt at the base. Garret wants to ring World Control but Clent decides to plug all information they have into the computer.
Penley uses the tranquiliser gun on the bear and misses. The bear attacks.
The computer says that they should wait, prepare the ioniser and contact World Control. Clent praises the computer for being cold, logical and incapable of taking a gamble.
Penley manages to tranquilise the bear, sustaining only a scratch in the process.
Back at the Ice Warriors ship the Doctor has been shown the ship's engines. They are powered by an ion reactor which will not explode under ionisation. The Ice Warriors refuse to allow the Doctor to pass on this information as it will lead to their destruction. They ask the Doctor what sort of fuel the base runs on. The Doctor realises that they are without fuel to power their ship and refuses to tell them. They threaten Victoria's life, forcing the Doctor to say that it runs on the right fuel for them. The Ice Warriors prepare an attack on the base.
Clent is informed of the arrival of Penley and Jamie. He allows them in, despite being unsure about Penley's return. Clent and Garret are dismissive initially but offer to help Jamie, but Clent has given up on retrieving the Doctor and Victoria. Penley says that this is ridiculous — to risk two people's lives because a computer says so. Clent refuses to relent. Jamie begins to grab Clent physically and Clent has both Jamie and Penley tranquilised.
An Ice Warrior has made it to the base and communicates with the ship to prepare the weapon. The Doctor tells Victoria to pretend to cry. Masked by the sound of her tears the Doctor informs her that he is to use the ammonium sulphide which will, hopefully, be noxious to the Ice Warriors. Victoria distracts the Ice Warrior by saying that water is seeping through the door of the ship, but the Doctor cannot get the cork out of the top of the test tube. The Ice Warrior turns and sees the Doctor's plan and rounds on him. The Doctor manages to uncork the test tube just in time. The Ice Warrior begins to die but as he does his hand clamps on to the fire button with the Doctor trying his hardest to stop the annihilation of the base.
The sonic blast triggered by the Ice Warriors causes only minor damage, destroying the records wing. The Ice Warriors use the communicator to call Clent, threatening to fire again unless the humans surrender. Clent knows the base dome cannot survive another blast and suggests a meeting between the two sides. Garrett suggests they threaten to destroy the ship using the ioniser. Another scientist says they should go ahead and do it. When Clent says they cannot, the scientist loses his mind and goes to destroy the computer. Garrett tranquillises him.
Back in the Ice Warriors ship, the Doctor begins to inspect the inner workings of the sonic gun.
The Ice Warriors confront the humans in the ioniser room. The talks fail when the tranquilised scientist tries to shoot the Martians. The Ice Warriors kill him. The Ice Warriors demand the base's mercury isotopes. Clent tells them they do not possess these but the Ice Warriors suspect he is lying and threaten to close down the reactor, causing the base to lose light, heat and electricity.
The Doctor and Victoria overhear all this and begin to dismantle the external section of the gun.
The Ice Warriors threaten Garrett and Clent with destruction unless they render the ioniser safe.
The Doctor and Victoria have adjusted the Martian sonic cannon so that the frequency of the gun only affects fluids. The Doctor thinks that the Ice Warriors have a higher level of liquid in them so will be affected more. Furthermore he believes their helmets will further exaggerate the sonic effects. He is aware this may be a risk that puts the human lives on the base in jeopardy too. Penley awakes and goes to explore the base.
Garrett has rendered the ioniser safe and the Ice Warriors order total shut down of the reactor. Penley oversees all this and turns the heat and humidity of the base up whilst turning the oxygen down. This affects the Ice Warriors who go to turn on Clent and his scientists.
At the same time the Doctor fires the sonic cannon. This causes the Ice Warriors and the humans to collapse. The Doctor renders the gun useless and leaves the ship.
When he returns to the base he finds the Ice Warriors gone. He goes around waking up the crew. Clent orders Garrett to phase up the ioniser. The Doctor and Penley press Clent to use the ioniser as a weapon against the Ice Warriors but Clent refuses to go against the computer. The Doctor and Penley press their case. Clent consults the computer, which short circuits. Penley takes the decision to use the ioniser at full strength.
The Ice Warriors find that the glacier is breaking up around them and also discover that their ship does have fuel after all. Clent orders Penley to stop but he continues.
The Ice Warriors' ship begins to break up.
Back at base the explosions caused by the ship was only minor. Clent compliments Penley but has no time to thank the Doctor and his colleagues as they have already disappeared.
- Dr. Who - Patrick Troughton
- Jamie McCrimmon - Frazer Hines
- Victoria Waterfield - Deborah Watling
- Miss Garrett - Wendy Gifford
- Clent - Peter Barkworth
- Arden - George Waring
- Walters - Malcolm Taylor
- Davis - Peter Diamond
- Storr - Angus Lennie
- Elric Penley - Peter Sallis
- Voice of Computer - Roy Skelton
- Varga - Bernard Bresslaw
- Zondal - Roger Jones
- Turoc - Sonny Caldinez
- Rintan - Tony Harwood
- Isbur - Michael Attwell
- Assistant Floor Manager - Quenton Annis
- Costumes - Martin Baugh
- Designer - Jeremy Davies
- Film Cameraman - Brian Langley
- Film Editor - Michael Lockey
- Incidental Music - Dudley Simpson
- Make-Up - Sylvia James
- Producer - Innes Lloyd
- Production Assistant - Snowy Lidiard-White
- Script Editor - Peter Bryant
- Special Sounds - Brian Hodgson
- Studio Lighting - Sam Neeter
- Studio Sound - Bryan Forgham
- Theme Arrangement - Delia Derbyshire
- Title Music - Ron Grainer
- Visual Effects - Bernard Wilkie, Ron Oates
- Brittanicus Base is run by Britain.
- Earth's population has taken over all farmland on Earth, so food production has shifted to artificial means.
- The Ice Warriors have a sonic gun.
- Varga has been frozen in the ice for thousands of years.
- Clent states that thousands of years of history is under the glacier.
Story notes Edit
- The opening title captions referred to the individual instalments as "one", "two" etc. rather than the usual "episodes".
- Only "one", "four", "five" and "six" of this six-part story exist in the BBC Archives as 16mm black & white film telerecordings.
- A real bear was used in specially shot film inserts (as opposed to stock footage).
- Miss Garrett's entire costume unexpectedly changes between episodes five and six. Her outfit in episode six is the same one she was wearing in episode one.
- Regarding the dating of this story, a Radio Times article published at the time of initial broadcast placed it in the year 3000. This was the date used in DWM 76, The Doctor Who Programme Guide, The Universal Databank, The Doctor Who File and A History of the Universe, and it was referred to in the novels Legacy and The Dark Path. However, The Making of Doctor Who says that it was set three thousand years after the previous story (so circa 4935), The Talons of Weng-Chiang says that the Ice Age was in the year 5000, and no stories set in the 30th century seem to depict Earth being in an Ice Age. The problem with both dates is that each is contradicted by the fact that in this story humanity appears to be completely unfamiliar with the Ice Warriors, despite having contact with them in The Seeds of Death (set in the 21st century) and The Curse of Peladon (set in the year 3885).
- Incidental music from this story exists.
- Archaeological discoveries of the time, notably the Sutton Hoo dig, influenced the idea of a buried body proving to be an alien, with the Ice Warrior's space helmet being mistaken for an ancient helmet.
- Notions about Mars, current in 1967 but now known to be false, also inform the programme, such as the nitrogen atmosphere of Mars which causes the Ice Warriors' breathing difficulties on Earth.
- The theories of a "nuclear winter" and "a New Ice Age" are the basis for the setting of the story. The disputes between the scientists seem to represent the debate amongst scientists over the validity of these theories. The idea of weather manipulation had appeared in The Moonbase and would reappear in The Enemy of the World, which followed from this story, and in the next Ice Warriors story, The Seeds of Death.
- Clent states that the cause of the ice age is the lack of carbon dioxide, since there are few plants left after the needs of feeding a global population made farming impractical. Both this story and the next, The Enemy of the World, have as their premise food shortages caused by overpopulation.
- One - 6.7 million viewers
- Two - 7.1 million viewers
- Three - 7.4 million viewers
- Four - 7.3 million viewers
- Five - 8.0 million viewers
- Six - 7.5 million viewers
- The base computer is called ECCO. (This name was invented by writer Brian Hayles for his later novelisation of the story.)
Filming locations Edit
- Ealing Television Film Studios, Ealing Green, Ealing
Production errors Edit
- Varga's head design changes after he wakes up.
- The Ice Warriors' mouths aren't in time with their words.
- The Doctor is wearing his fur coat. (TV: The Abominable Snowmen) He wears it several times more. (TV: The Five Doctors, AUDIO: Beyond the Ultimate Adventure, TV: Time and the Rani, and COMIC: A Cold Day in Hell!)
- Jamie also suggests at first that the Doctor has landed further up the mountain in Tibet, because the environment is still icy. (TV: The Abominable Snowmen)
- The crew have to climb out of the TARDIS because it is lying on its side. The Doctor later has to enter the TARDIS under similarly awkward circumstances. (TV: Time-Flight, TV: The Eleventh Hour)
- The Second Doctor later encounters the Ice Warriors on the Moon. (TV: The Seeds of Death)
- PROSE: Happy Endings references the events of this story.
- The Seventh Doctor tells Bernice Summerfield about this adventure, stating that it took place "six hundred years ago". He also claimed that the glacier was a result of solar flares. (PROSE: Legacy)
Home video and audio releases Edit
DVD releases Edit
In 2013, The Ice Warriors was released on DVD with its surviving parts and animated versions of the missing episodes two and three.
Digital releases Edit
- On 4 November, 2013, this story was released in standard definition with animated versions of the missing episodes two and three in iTunes stores (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, UK and US) as part of the Doctor Who: The Classic Series collection Doctor Who: The Best of The Second Doctor, which additionally includes The Tomb of the Cybermen, The Krotons, and The Seeds of Death.
- This story was released in BBC Store, opened for UK residents on 5 November 2015.
VHS releases Edit
When this was released on VHS it was released with a mini-reconstruction of the two missing episodes (episodes two and three), which was narrated by David Harley. The narration was originally to have been provided by Frazer Hines, but a contractual issue arose. The mini-reconstruction also appeared as an extra on the DVD release.
Editing and reconstruction for the VHS release was completed by the Doctor Who Restoration Team.
Soundtrack releases Edit
This story's soundtrack, with linking narration by Frazer Hines, was released on CD on 1 August 2005. It was re-released as part of the box set Doctor Who: The Lost TV Episodes - Collection Four on 2 February 2012.
- The Ice Warriors at the BBC's official site
- The Ice Warriors at BroaDWcast
- The Ice Warriors at the Doctor Who Reference Guide
- The Ice Warriors at Shannon Sullivan's A Brief History of Time (Travel)
- BBC The Ice Warriors photonovel
- The Ice Warriors transcript