a real world point of view
|The Reign of Terror|
|Novelised as:||The Reign of Terror|
|Companion(s):||Susan, Barbara, Ian|
|Main setting:||Paris, 23-27 July 1794|
|Number of episodes:||6|
|Premiere broadcast:||8 August - 12 September 1964|
|Doctor Who television stories|
|The Sensorites||Planet of Giants|
|Behind the scenes video|
The Reign of Terror was the eighth and final story of the first season of Doctor Who. It was the first story to use location filming, the first to feature a pre-pubescent actor in a speaking role, and the first to show the full-sized TARDIS prop materialising. It also heralded the arrival of writer and future script editor Dennis Spooner to the programme. It's also the only season finale not to have any science fiction elements whatsoever, apart from the TARDIS and its crew.
Amongst its most lasting narrative significance was Susan's assertion that the French Revolution was the First Doctor's favourite period of history. This was later remembered by Russell T Davies and Steven Moffat in their writing of the Tenth Doctor, who had a fondness for all things French.
Currently, the original master copies of episodes 4 and 5 remain missing from the BBC archive. However, the missing episodes have been reconstructed in animated format for the 2013 DVD release of the serial. Though the actual footage is yet to be recovered, both episodes retain the full-length audio soundtracks originally recorded during production. This is the second Doctor Who story to have its missing segments refilled through the use of animation, the first being TV: The Invasion.
The TARDIS materialises not far from Paris in 1794 - one of the bloodiest years following the French Revolution of 1789. The travellers become involved with an escape chain rescuing prisoners from the guillotine and get caught up in the machinations of an English undercover spy, James Stirling - alias Lemaitre, governor of the Conciergerie Prison.
A Land of Fear (1)
The Doctor, Ian, Barbara and Susan arrive at a destination that the Doctor assures his guests is 1960s Earth. He intends throwing Ian and Barbara out there and then, but they butter him up and convince him that they should just check to see if he has been accurate in his landing of the craft.
When they leave the TARDIS it is clear that it is Earth but they note how dark it is and that there appears to be no street lights around. While Ian investigates he finds a small feral boy in the wood. After questioning, the boy informs the travellers that they are 12kms from Paris. The Doctor states that 100 miles [sic] from the intended destination - whilst not perfect - is pretty good. Before they can question the boy any more, he runs off. The foursome continue to explore and eventually find an abandoned house. They split up and explore it. Barbara, Ian, and Susan begin to suspect that the Doctor has not been as accurate as he imagined when they find 18th century furniture and clothes around the house. They also find fake papers, some of which bear the signature of Robespierre, the chief orchestrator of government during the Reign of Terror in the year 1794. They deduce the farmhouse is being used as a staging post in an escape chain for counter-revolutionaries. They put on some of the clothes so as to not look conspicuous to the others when they go back to the TARDIS. Ian goes to look for the Doctor but as he leaves he is accosted by two counter-revolutionaries named D'Argenson and Rouvray. They hold a gun to Barbara, Ian, and Susan and try to ascertain if they are loyal to the revolution or are counter-revolutionaries like themselves. They ask if they are travelling alone. Barbara replies in the affirmative. Rouvray says that this is a lie as they have found the Doctor upstairs. They assure them that he is all right, but they are still hostile to the travellers.
The impasse is ended when a band of revolutionary soldiers surrounds the house and demands their collective surrender. Instead of storming the house they wait outside, counting on the counter-revolutionaries to lose their nerve. This ploy bears fruit when D'Argenson, who has seemed nervous from the off, gives himself up thinking that his surrender will spare him the guillotine. Reluctantly Rouvray joins him. They are both killed.
The soldiers now enter the house and capture Ian, Barbara, and Susan, thinking they are counter-revolutionaries also. They inform them that they will be marched to Paris and the guillotine. The parting action of the soldiers is to set fire to the farmhouse – unaware the Doctor is inside. The travellers stare at the house as the roof falls in and the Doctor lies unconscious on the floor.
Guests of Madame Guillotine (2)
Once in Paris, Barbara, Ian, and Susan are sentenced to death for being traitors to the Revolution. They are swiftly imprisoned, with Ian put in a separate cell from Susan and Barbara. Once Ian has been dispatched, the lecherous prison warden says that he would be able to help the two girls escape, but Barbara turns this down, sensing that he would ask for a little more than the "company" he says he seeks. Susan is distraught at their predicament and confides to Barbara that she is worried about her grandfather, fearing his death.
However, the Doctor is not dead. He was saved from the blaze by the young boy that they encountered outside the TARDIS. He informs the Doctor that his companions have been taken to the Conciergerie Prison in Paris. After thanking the boy, he sets off after them.
Barbara begins to plot a way out of their cell. She notices that the wall to her cell is wet and that means that there must be some kind of sewer system below the cell. She thinks that the moistness of the wall means that with a bit of time and effort she could be able to pry one of the bricks out from the wall. She sets about doing this using one of the planks of the bed as a primitive crow bar. Meanwhile Ian has been put in a cell with a dying man by the name of Webster. Webster is also English and with his dying breath tells Ian that he has been sent over from England to find a James Stirling who has precious information that will help England fight the inevitable war with France. Webster makes Ian promise to he seek out Stirling and tell him to return to England. Ian promises that he will do so just before Webster dies.
The Doctor, on his way to Paris, encounters a chain gang. He asks the leader of the chain gang, who is aggressive and violent to the men he leads, whether he is on the road to Paris, to which the leader responds in the affirmative. The leader complains that his men are slow and that he has been ordered to finish this section of the road before tomorrow. The Doctor suggests that instead of being violent towards his men he should aid them in their effort. The leader responds badly to this, insists on seeing the Doctor's identification papers, and when he can't provide them orders him to join in the manual work.
Back in the prison the girls are almost discovered digging their hole which startles them. Their work is brought to a halt later when they discover that rats are coming in through the hole and infesting their cell. Susan is distraught at this so Barbara says they will stop. Over in Ian's cell a nobleman named Lemaitre comes in and inspects the body of Webster. He orders Ian to tell him whether Webster said anything to him before his death. Ian tells the man that he didn't but the prison warder states he heard them talking. The nobleman takes Ian's name off the list of people to be executed.
Meanwhile back at the chain gang, the Doctor has devised a plan whereby he will gain his freedom as well as the freedom of the other men. He creates a distraction for the leader by saying that there is to be an eclipse. As the leader looks to the Sun, the Doctor steals some money from the leader's purse. As the men go back to their digging the Doctor hides some money in the soil and pretends to uncover it saying that he has found buried treasure. The greedy leader begins to take over the digging and whilst he is distracted the Doctor knocks him over the head, rendering him unconscious. As the Doctor moves on he passes a sign indicating he is 5km from Paris. However it may be too late as the prison warder comes to Barbara and Susan's cell and informs them that it is time for their execution. As they are led out to the wagon to lead them to their death, Ian looks out of his prison window in shock.
A Change of Identity (3)
By this time the Doctor has arrived in Paris and starts to track down his companions. Meanwhile in another part of Paris the wagon carrying Susan and Barbara halts temporarily to change horses. Barbara suggests that they could use this opportunity to run, but Susan has too much of a headache. Barbara seems resigned to their fate.
Back at the prison the jailer is serving food to the inmates when he is called away by Lemaitre. In his rush to get to his superior he leaves his set of keys in the lock. While he is gone Ian finds the keys in the lock, reaches them through the grate, removes the key to his cell, and places another key in the lock. When the jailer returns he does not notice the difference and thinks he has got away with his forgetfulness.
The Doctor wanders the streets and comes across a clothes shop. He swaps all the clothes, including his ring, for the clothes of a Regional Officer of the Provinces.
In the prison Ian takes an opportunity whilst the jailer is drunk to sneak out of the prison. As he does Lemaitre is watching his every move. Once Ian has gone he speculates that his escape would be the only way to see if Webster had said anything about Sterling to Ian before he died.
Back at the safe house Barbara and Susan are told they will be given food and a place to rest, and then they will be smuggled out of France in the escape chain, but Barbara says they can't leave France without the Doctor and Ian. Jules and Jean reassure her they will try to reunite the four travellers. When Barbara and Susan tell them how they came to be arrested they mention the house in the woods that was burnt down. This shocks the two men, who ask if D'Argenson and Rouvray were there. When the girls tell them that they were and that they were killed by the soldiers, Jules informs them that this house was being used as a safe house and that D'Argenson and Rouvray were people that they had saved. Jean and Jules speculate that there must be a traitor in their midst who is giving away the locations of their safe houses. At this point Susan is taken ill again and Barbara takes her to bed. Another counter-revolutionary, Léon Colbert, arrives and joins their company, quickly striking up a romantic flirtation with Barbara.
In his new guise of Regional Officer of the Provinces the Doctor forces his way into the Conciergerie, but by the time he gets there he is informed by the jailer that all three have gone. The Doctor ascertains what has happened to his friends and is about to leave when Lemaitre arrives and insists he accompany him to visit First Deputy Robespierre to report on his province. Once he has gone a messenger comes to the jailer to inform Lemaitre of something important. The jailer says that he can't be interrupted as he is with Robespierre. The messenger says it's important as he has proof of a traitor - as he says this he displays the Doctor's ring.
The Tyrant of France (4)
Lemaitre takes the Doctor to an audience with the "Tyrant of France" himself, who appears as both a zealot and a psychopath with his constant talk of needing to increase the pace of execution. Little the Doctor can say to the contrary seems to have any sway, but by the end of the meeting Robespierre seems to have warmed to the Doctor and asks if he can return tomorrow.
Meanwhile at the rebel's house Susan is still desperately unwell. Leon takes it upon himself to find a physician for her. This puts him in the good books of Barbara even more. Barbara and Susan are left by themselves as Jules and Jean are checking out one of their hideouts. They are shocked to see someone in there. Jules sneaks in and strikes the man. Little do they know it is Ian.
When the Doctor and Lemaitre return to jail, the Doctor tries to make excuses and leave, but a mixture of Lemaitre's insistence and threats from the jailer force the Doctor to stay. When Lemaitre returns to his quarters he finds the shop clerk there who informs him of the true nature of the Doctor.
On returning back to their house with the prostrate body of Ian with them, Jules and Jean are shocked to find that the interloper is the friend of Barbara. Ian says that he was told to wait for Jules there so as to find the whereabouts of James Stirling. He is disappointed to be informed that Jules has no idea who Stirling is; however Ian is told that Leon may have more of an idea. Jules arranges a meeting between Ian and Leon. Danielle comes and informs the men that the physician will not visit the house for fear of retribution. It is reluctantly decided that Barbara should take Susan there.
On their arriving at the physician's he seems suspicious but willing to treat Susan. He leaves to get some supplies and when a suspicious Susan tries to leave they discover that they have been locked in. The physician is a spy and has informed the soldiers of Barbara and Susan's whereabouts. Before they know what has happened, they have been re-arrested and taken back to prison. Knowing full well the connections between his guests, Lemaitre summons the Doctor to interrogate Barbara only to eavesdrop on their conversation.
Whilst all this is happening Ian is going to meet Leon in an abandoned church. As he sees Leon he realises that he is surrounded by soldiers and has likewise been betrayed.
A Bargain of Necessity (5)
Leon explains that he has trapped Ian so as to extract information from him. Ian insists that he is no part of the protection ring that is run by Jules, but Leon does not believe him.
Meanwhile at the Conciergerie, Lemaitre's plan to overhear information during the conversation between the Doctor and Barbara comes to fruition when he overhears Barbara whisper the address of Jules' safehouse to the Doctor. Once Lemaitre has gone the Doctor convinces the jailer that Barbara is a powerful member of the protection racket and that she could hold the key to every rebel in France. He convinces the jailer that the only way to get this information from her is to allow her to walk free and follow her to her rebel alliances. The jailer unlocks the door, allowing Barbara to escape.
As Barbara leaves the prison for Jules' house, Jules returns to find Barbara and Ian gone. Jules goes to the church where he knew that Ian was to meet Leon and finds him held captive. He takes the captors by surprise and kills them both so as to liberate Ian.
Back at the Conciergerie, the Doctor tries to trick the jailer yet again, suggesting that he allow Susan to go free in order to follow her, just as he did with Barbara. The jailer is reluctant to do this as he fears retribution from his superiors. These self-same superiors are in conversation with one another in Robespierre's chambers. Robespierre tells Lemaitre that he suspects his deputy, Paul Barras, is planning to conspire against him in an upcoming convention. He asks Lemaitre to track Barras the following day to a secret assignation outside the city to gain more information on this.
Ian and Jules return to the safe house and are surprised to see Barbara, who informs them that the Doctor has infiltrated the prison and released her and is planning to do the same with Susan. Ian receives this news with great humour. Conversely, Barbara is disgusted when she hears that Jules has killed Leon, as she is unable to distinguish between the man and the deeds that he was committing.
Unable to play the same trick on the jailer for the second time, the Doctor convinces Susan that she should hide behind the door so that from outside the cell she would remain unseen. Once in position the Doctor pretends that she has escaped. When the jailer opens the door in shock to inspect how she exited the cell, the Doctor hits him over the head with a bottle. As Susan and the Doctor make their escape they are stopped in their tracks by Lemaitre who reveals to the Doctor that he has been aware of his duplicity from the start and has been orchestrating the successive release and recapture of his companions from the start. The Doctor denies that he is in disguise but is forced to take Lemaitre to the safe house as Lemaitre threatens Susan's life unless he does so.
An anxious Barbara and Ian are waiting for the Doctor but are shocked when he arrives, not with Susan in tow but with Lemaitre.
Prisoners of Conciergerie (6)
Lemaitre reveals that he has been orchestrating the releases and recapture of the Doctor's companions since the beginning. When Ian questions why he would do this Lemaitre reveals he is in fact James Stirling. Stirling was placed deep undercover and was supposed to intercept Webster at the prison but was too late. Ian relays Webster's message that Stirling should return to England immediately. The spy agrees but presses Ian for more detail on Webster's last hours. Initially, Ian can't remember any details, but when Stirling begins to talk about the fact he was called to follow Barras for Robespierre, Ian recalls the words, "Barras, meeting, and the "Sinking Ship.'" Stirling recalls that this is the name of an inn on the Calais Road and they realise that is where the conspiracy against the First Deputy will take place. It is decided that Jules, Ian, and Barbara be placed there undercover in order to gain information from the meeting.
Jules, disguised as a guest, and Ian and Barbara, disguised as landlord and serving-woman, are undercover at the inn. When Barras appears he seems unsure at first but soon warms to the place. Eventually a young man enters, and initially Ian and Barbara don't know who it is. However, they soon find out it is Napoleon Bonaparte. Through a hole Ian made in the wall, Ian and Barbara hear Barras seek to persuade the young general to take the mantle of leadership after the overthrow of Robespierre as one of three Consuls. Napoleon urges Barras to topple Robespierre but warns him that if this fails to happen he will deny this meeting ever took place.
The following day Jules and Ian speed off to stop Robespierre's imprisonment - an act which Barbara finds amusing because she knows history cannot be changed. By the time Jules and Ian get there, the coup against Robespierre has begun, and the tyrant has been shot in the mouth before being seized himself and sent to the Conciergerie.
While this is happening, the Doctor reaches the prison where he outwits the jailer one more time by convincing him that Lemaitre has been captured as a traitor and that the jailer is an associate of his and will be soon thrown in prison himself. The Doctor then wins the jailer around by being lenient with him. He suggests that the prison be cleared in preparation for the huge influx of traitors that will be brought - ensuring that Susan is freed in order to escape with them. As they leave through one door, the bleeding Robespierre is brought in by another, his body broken and his rule ended. He will be guillotined himself soon.
The escape chain now demonstrates itself to best effect and smuggles several people out of Paris. Stirling will head for Calais and thence to England; Jules and Jean will lie low as they measure the future now that Robespierre has fallen; and the Doctor and his companions are to return to the TARDIS in the woods near Paris, reflecting on another brush with history and their role within it - especially the fact that history has a way of remaining resilient to human change and that their journeys in the future are up to the stars.
- The Doctor - William Hartnell
- Ian Chesterton - William Russell
- Barbara Wright - Jacqueline Hill
- Susan Foreman - Carole Ann Ford
- Jean-Pierre - Peter Walker
- Rouvray - Laidlaw Dalling
- D'Argenson - Neville Smith
- Sergeant - Robert Hunter
- Lieutenant - Ken Lawrence
- Soldier - James Hall
- Judge - Howard Charlton
- Jailer - Jack Cunningham
- Webster - Jeffry Wickham
- Overseer - Dallas Cavell
- Peasant - Dennis Cleary
- Lemaitre / James Stirling - James Cairncross
- Jean - Roy Herrick
- Jules Renan - Donald Morley
- Shopkeeper - John Barrard
- Danielle - Caroline Hunt
- Léon Colbert - Edward Brayshaw
- Maximilien Robespierre - Keith Anderson
- Physician - Ronald Pickup
- Soldier - Terry Bale
- Paul Barras - John Law
- Napoléon Bonaparte - Tony Wall
- Soldier - Patrick Marley
- Writer - Dennis Spooner
- Director - Henric Hirsch
- Producer - Verity Lambert
- Script Editor - David Whitaker
- Designer - Roderick Laing
- Assistant Floor Manager - Michael Cager
- Associate Producer - Mervyn Pinfield
- Costumes - Daphne Dare
- Film Cameraman - Peter Hamilton
- Film Editor - Caroline Shields
- Incidental Music - Stanley Myers
- Make-Up - Jill Summers
- Make-Up - Sonia Markham
- Production Assistant - Timothy Combe
- Special Sound - Brian Hodgson
- Studio Lighting - Howard King
- Studio Sound - Chick Anthony
- Studio Sound - Ray Angel
- Theme Arrangement - Delia Derbyshire
- Title Music - Ron Grainer
- According to Susan, the French Revolution is the Doctor's favourite period of history.
- Barbara states she has learnt her lesson to not meddle in history after her experience with the Aztecs.
- Barbara and Susan compare their imprisonment to that they suffered "in the prehistoric age". However they say their current situation comes "with one important difference — the Doctor and Ian were with us then".
- This was the first Doctor Who story to feature location filming.
- Episodes 1, 2, 3 and 6 exist in 16mm telerecordings.
- The working title of this story was The French Revolution.
- Episode 6 was returned by a private collector in May 1982.
- Prints of all four existing episodes were recovered from a Cypriot television station in 1985. These included a superior print of episode 2.
- Twelve clips from episodes 4 and 5 exist in the form of 8mm home movie reel.
- Episode 2 used the working title "Guests of the Guillotine".
- This story was a replacement for a six-part story by David Whitaker which would have been set at the time of the Spanish Armada.
- William Russell originally suggested the idea of a story set during the French Revolution.
- Director Henric Hirsch suffered from exhaustion during the making of this serial and was unable to direct episode 3. It is believed John Gorrie (who had directed The Keys of Marinus) stepped in temporarily. However, Gorrie claimed to have no memory of working on the story so it is possible the director was someone else, who remains unidentified to this day.
- William Russell was on holiday during the filming of episodes 2 and 3 and appeared only in pre-recorded film sequences.
- Edward Brayshaw, later to feature as the War Chief in 1969's The War Games, has a role as Léon Colbert, a counter-espionage agent allied with the Revolutionary government.
- In a number of 1970s listing guides the story was called The French Revolution. This appears to derive from a promotional article in the BBC listings magazine Radio Times entitled "Dr Who and the French Revolution".
- Many photographs of this story remain. Along with the soundtrack, these were used by Loose Cannon Productions to reconstruct this story (see external links). An earlier reconstruction of this story was made by Michael Palmer, although this is no longer in circulation.
- It was originally intended that Verity Lambert and David Whitaker would be responsible for finding a replacement show to run during the season break. However this did not prove necessary and the slot was filled with repeats of The Valiant Varneys.
- This was the first historical in which the Doctor was seen to wear period attire. The First Doctor continued to do so in most of his stories set in Earth's past. The tradition was initially continued by the Second Doctor in The Highlanders, but as pure historical stories faded from Doctor Who, the Doctor generally abandoned this notion.
- Parts of the story have been animated, with the animation filling in for the missing episodes. The project was led by Big Finish Productions, along with Thetamation for PUP Limited and BBC Worldwide. It was released in region 2 on 28 January 2013.
- "A Land of Fear" - 6.9 million viewers
- "Guests of Madame Guillotine" - 6.9 million viewers
- "A Change of Identity" -6.9 million viewers
- "The Tyrant of France" - 6.4 million viewers
- "A Bargain of Necessity" - 6.9 million viewers
- "Prisoners of Conciergerie" - 6.4 million viewers
- An elaborate model of Paris was made for this story but never used. This model was given to Carole Ann Ford as a present.
- No such model was made, Carole Ann Ford was actually given the design model made by Roderick Laing to assist with his work. Sadly, this unique piece of Doctor Who history now no longer exists. According to Ford in her introduction for the Loose Cannon video reconstruction, the model was later accidentally smashed to pieces when her cleaning lady, whilst using a feather duster, knocked it off the top of the wardrobe where it was kept.
- Toby Hadoke claimed on the story's DVD commentary that it was a widely held myth that no one was credited as a director on "A Change of Identity". In fact, Henric Hirsch was indeed credited.
- BBC Television Centre (TC4)
- Lime Grove Studios (Studio G)
- White Plain, a nursing home in Denham Green, Buckinghamshire.
- An Isle of Wight Farm at nearby Gerrards Cross.
- During episode 1 while the Doctor and Ian are first exploring the house, the camera moves in on Ian looking through the door and hits something in front of him. A few moments later, as the Doctor and Ian walk through a doorway, a mic shadow is clearly visible on the wall next to the door.
- Susan previously showed an interest in the French Revolution in TV: An Unearthly Child.
- During her incarceration, Barbara is reminded of her imprisonment in the Cave of Skulls in 100,000 BC. (TV: An Unearthly Child)
- Barbara claims to have learnt her lesson about meddling in history after the events of TV: The Aztecs.
- The First Doctor would return to Paris, more than two centuries earlier, in August 1572 in the company of Steven Taylor. (TV: The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve)
- The Doctor is proud of himself for getting Ian and Barbara to within 100 miles [actually ~200 miles] of their home of London. The Fourth Doctor, attempting to return Sarah Jane Smith to her London neighbourhood of South Croydon, misses the mark by more than 400 miles, delivering her instead to Aberdeen. (TV: The Hand of Fear; TV: School Reunion)
- The First Doctor would return to France on many occasions, further expressing his fondness for all things French.
Home video and audio releases
This story was released as Doctor Who: The Reign of Terror
- This release contains narration by Carole Ann Ford. It contains clips and stills from episodes 4 and 5.
- The second tape contains episodes 1 and 3 of The Faceless Ones and episode 1 of The Web of Fear.
- The North American release was also included in The End of the Universe Collection.
- This was the final release by BBC Video in the VHS tape format. It shifted to DVD-only releases thereafter.
- Editing of surviving episodes for VHS release completed by Doctor Who Restoration Team.
- A fan produced photo video reconstruction has been made of this story by Loose Cannon Productions. This includes an introduction by Carole Ann Ford.
- Audio Commentary (original episodes 1, 2, 3 & 6) with Carole Ann Ford (Susan), Neville Smith (D'Argenson), Jeffrey Wickham (Webster), Caroline Hunt (Danielle), Patrick Marley (Soldier) and production assistant Tim Combe
- Audio Commentary (animated episode 4) with actor Ronald Pickup (Physician)
- Audio Commentary (animated episode 5) with missing episode hunters Philip Morris and Paul Vanezis
- Don't Lose Your Head - Making of with William Russell (Ian), Carole Ann Ford and Tim Combe
- Set Tour - Virtual tour of the 2D sets for animated episodes
- Animation Design Gallery
- Photo Gallery
- PDF materials: Radio Times listings
This story was released as Doctor Who: The Reign of Terror ISBN 0-563-52342-5 by BBC Audio on CD in February 2006. It was a double CD set with narration by and interview with Carole Ann Ford. It was re-released in 2010 as part of the box set Doctor Who: The Lost TV Episodes - Collection One.
- The Reign of Terror at the BBC's official site
- The Reign of Terror at BroaDWcast
- Detailed synopsis of The Reign of Terror at the Doctor Who Reference Guide
- The Reign of Terror at Shannon Sullivan's A Brief History of Time (Travel)
- The Reign of Terror transcripts
- The Reign of Terror entry at Encyclopedia of Fantastic Film and Television
- Reconstruction website on The Reign of Terror
- ↑ Five days are depicted, Robespierre states in the next-to-last day that the following day will be 27 July 1794. The final day includes Robespierre's gunshot wound to his face, and his arrest; both are recorded in history as having occurred on 27 July 1794.
- ↑ London and Paris are approximately 200 miles apart in reality
- ↑ INFO: "The Temple of Evil"
- ↑ Doctor Who - The Reign of Terror. Theta-Sigma. Retrieved on 9th September 2012.